At Pusad there is a young man by name Shankar Aliya, aged about 18 years. His natural fatherís name was Malayya. He was born of his fatherís mistress on his motherís death. When he was aged about 1½ years, his genetive father wished to part with this boy as well as another daughter he had. The daughter was given over to one Jain by name Shamlal. This boy was being to be handed over to a muslim. When I came to know about this I handed over the boy to a gentleman by name Allya Munglaya who has brought him up as his own son as he had no other child. About two or three years ago the Pastor of the Church of Pusad known as Palak induced this boy, Shankar Allaya, to leave his home by the offer of a girl in marriage and service with the idea that he should be converted to Christianity. The boy left Pusad. When his mother by name Gangamwar, i.e., Allayaís wife learnt about it she approached me and I advised her to make a complaint to the police. As directed by the police officer she complained that her son had disappeared. The police officer did not want her to report against the pastor that he had taken away her son. Four or five days later the boy Shankar returned to Pusad.
In the Mission Hospital at Pusad there is an Indian Nurse who treats patients. One Rajeshwar Kumarís wife by name Shantabai was in the family and she approached her for advice as to the delivery. The nurse took Shantabai to mission Hospital at Basim. There was delivery but the child was still-born. Both Rajeshwar and his wife came back to Pusad at the expense of the Nurse. Since then the nurse used to attend on Shantabai and in course of the time used to offer Christian prayers in her house in company with other Christians. When that matter came to my notice I asked Rajeshwar Kumar about it and he said that as the Christian nurse had obliged him in his time of difficulty by giving monetary help and medical service, he and his wife naturally thought and were inclined to agree to the Christian prayers to be held in their house. After the Sunday prayers in the church group of Christians used to go to Rajeshwarís house and distributed copies of the Bible and Gospel. Then they pressed Rajeshwar Kumar and his wife to become Christian but Rajeshwar Kumar and his wife are still Hindus and have not embraced Christian religion. The Christians even now occasionally visit them although they do not hold regular Christian prayers at their house.
The nurse of the same hospital at Pusad helped one teacher by name Khodke in the delivery of his wife. His wife died but the child survived. The nurse asked Khodke to hand over the child to herself for being brought up. He refused. Since then she discontinued visits to Khodkeís house.
Similarly a Komti by name Paraskar sent his wife to the Mission Hospital at Basim in company with the nurse at the Pusad hospital. When his wife delivered a male child, the medical officer, a lady doctor asked the mother to hand over the child to her. She also declined to give her child. Paraskarís wife was detained in the hospital for some time even after she was in a position to leave hospital. Mr. Pallewar, Pleader, Pusad, went to the hospital and asked for the reasons. The lady doctor said that the child could be handed over to her for being brought up. Mr. Pallewar protested against it and Pallewar brought back Paraskarís wife and the new born baby to Pusad. Pallewar is a Komti and a relation of Paraskar who is also a Komti.
One Sukhubai, wife of Govinda Hakadi, went for treatment to Pusad hospital. She was admitted into the hospital. While there she was asked to become Christian. She was there for ten days. She was from Poona and she has gone back to Poona.
I came across an Indian convert who was in company with an American Missionary. He began to impress upon us, while he was a Hindu, he was a sinner and after he became Christian his sins were all forgiven. I heard an American Missionary who was preaching in a public place at Pusad. In the course of his preaching he said that since the present Government is established people are undergoing distress in matter of food and clothings. He was also contrasting the present Government with the British Government by saying that under the British Government everything was cheap and people were happy.
He also criticised Krishna by saying that he was committing thefts and he was dancing with women. Rama also could not be God who for the sake of his wife went to fight with Ravan and the people were asked to go to Jesus for their salvations, as he gave sight to the blind and cured people of the leprosy and other diseases. They also invite Hindu children to the church and distribute sweets as well as clothes and also some biblical pictures. I am filling these two pictures. They approached children like this and also illiterate people. Mrs. Me. Wan who is the head mistress of the Government Girls Anglo-Vernacular School also used to take the girls to witness cinema shows of Jesus life.
To Mr. G. P. Tiwari of Mungeli-
read Satyarth Prakashan. There is no mention of Jesus being born
of adultery. He has not condemned the Puranas, Bible or any other
sacred books, by this he means Dayanand Saraswati, the author of the book.
I am teacher for 21 years. I am a preacher of Arya Samaj. I
do not go to Christians for preaching. I did not keep Shankar Allaya when
he was one and half years old with me but I handed him over to Allaya.
I know Rajesh Kumar for the last 10 years. His marriage was performed
in my presence. The delivery took place about five years age.
The marriage must have taken place about 20 years ago and I reside there
since 21 years. The nurse is in Pusad for the last five or six years.
I cannot say why Rajesh did not object to the Christians offering prayer
but I think as he Was obliged, he did not object. There was no actual
force used but I find naturally it would influence the mind of a man who
is once obliged. Rajesh and Khodke masters are my neighbours.
I cannot tell you the exact time of delivery. Paraskar himself did
not tell anything about his wife. Although Sakhubai had an inflamation
on her leg we did not help her to give her medical aid. I see the
American Missionaries coming to Pusad continuously for the last five to
six years. The American missionary was praising the British Government
and trying to impress upon the people that the conditions deteriorated
under this rule. I heard him three years ago and last year. I did
not report to the police. The sweets and the pictures are given to
the Christians as well as to the non-Christians.
I became a convert to Christianity in 1950. When I became a convert no missionary ever asked me and induced me by saying that he would give me food or clothing or any other comfort of life. I became a Christian because my. brother Keshaorao had become a Christian. I read the Bible and believed in the words of Jesus that he is the truth, way and life.
prayers to Lord Jesus to forgive me of my sins. I read new Testament.
This is in Johnís book. I have read St. Mark, Luke and Gospel.
By way I mean going to heaven.
About two and half years ago the Pastor of the Church at Pusad took me to Washim. He induced me to leave Pusad with him on the understanding that he would give me a girl in marriage and get me employed. He said that he would get me married to a Christian girl. He also showed me that Christian girl. The girl was at Pusad but the marriage was to be solemnised at Basim. I stayed at Basim with Pastor for two or three days. The girl was also brought to Basim. He asked me to be a Christian if I wanted to marry with a Christian girl. I declined to be a Christian. Then I returned back to Pusad.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
up to fifth standard Hindi. I am about 17 years. Allaya is my stepfather.
My genitive father is also at Pusad. He lives in separate house.
My mother died long ago. My sister died about two years ago.
I do not remember the name of the Pastor. While I was passing along
the Church, the Pastor used to call me. He used to invite me to come
in. The Pastor showed me the girl. She may be about 12 to 14
years of age. I liked the girl. I was inclined then to marry the
girl at my cost. He asked me to turn a Christian first before I could
be married and I said that I would become Christian after marry.
I was staying in the Hospital at Basim.
I can read and write now but I did not attend the school as it was intended for higher class people only. As I was asked to sit separately from the boys I did not like to go there. I have become converted since 19 years. For converting me no inducement was offered such as food, clothing, or girl in marriage. I was then a young man and I keenly felt that I was not being dealt with as a member of society and was caste out. I came in contact with Christians and I found that they treated me in good quality and in churches also they did not think me as inferior to them. Hindus never treated me as their equals. The Hindus insulted rob so far that they did not accept my salute ďRam RamĒ I cannot say anything about Christianity but all I know that the Christians love me and their God must be a God of love. That in the Bible I found that God sent his son out of love for humanity and that by his sacrifice that there should be love between man and man. I then decided to only accept such a God as true God and no other God. Then I got converted.
To Shri Mahajan, Pleader-
not complain to Government when I was treated as outcaste in the school.
It was a private school. I am now doing the work of Christian preacher.
I get Rs. 60 pay per month. My whole family became Christians including
my wife. I induced my wife and my mother to become Christian.
is a church at Umarkhed. About two miles away from Umarkhed there
is my village Dahegaon. The Christians at Umarkhed used to ask me
to be a christian and then we will give you a girl in marriage. This
relates to the year 1922-1924. Then I married a Christian girl and
became a Christian. The bride was from Akola and my marriage was
solemnised at Nagpur in some church which I am not able to recollect.
Then my wife and her sister got employment in a school at Tumsar.
I also went to Tumsar. I was working as conductor in a motor company.
There I discovered that my wife was in criminal intimacy with somebody.
Once it happened that when I came home I found my wife and her sister absent.
On enquiry from my mother-in-law I learnt that both of them had left in
company of a motor driver and a Sub-Inspector of Police. I reported
the matter to the Police. The Station House Officer made a search
for them and sometime later my wife and her sister returned home in a car
(motor car). I am unable to say who were other inmates of the car.
On enquiry of my wife and sister I was told that they had been out with
the Sub-Inspector and stopped at Dak-Bungalow and they returned to house
at about 11 p.m. Then my wife was transferred to some other school.
As this whole history happened in the course of one year I went to Sirasgaon
Band to which she had been transferred and said that our marriage should
be dissolved and the dissolution of the marriage took place at Chandur
Bazar by registered deed.
I am now a Christian and a preacher. I got baptised in 1943. No inducement was offered to me of any kind before I became a Christian. I lost seven children and my last son was seriously ill when the Christians came to my village on invitation and offer the prayer, the boy was cured after 4-5 days. As my son completely recovered I began to believe to Christianity and I got reconverted. Then I believed that the God who saved my son was the true God. Now I have got full faith in that God who cured my son. I do not believe that Christians mean any thing evil to India. I pray for the welfare of India.
To Mr. Mahajan, Pleader-
Rs. 45 as pay per month for the last 5-6 years during which I am a Christian.
I can read the Bible and explain its contents to the people. I used
to bring medicine as prescribed by the Missionaries. I became a Christian
when my son was cured. The whole of my family became Christian after
my son got cured. I asked them to embrace Christianity,
I am a musician (Wajantri). I was invited to give a musical performance by Christian by name Marcas at Taroda. There was no occasion for playing on music. I wanted to get away. He asked me to dine with him as the food was ready. I dined at his place. Then he asked me to attend the Bhajan. I heard the Bhajan which lasted from 12 night to 2 a.m., then he asked me to kneel and fold my hands and close my eyes. And as I did as he directed to do he sprinkled water on my head. When I questioned him as to the meaning of sprinkling of water he said that I was made a Christian thereby. In spite of all that I do not regard myself as Christian.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
were about 25 persons and along with me there were two more. The
subject of the Bhajan was Jesus Christ. I was not able to follow
what was being sung. As my eyes were closed I did not see but I could
feel some water sprinkled on my head. My companions also were asked
to do the same. I am not a Christian. In spite of the fact that water
was sprinkled on my head I am not a Christian. I cannot say who sprinkled
the water on my head.
My mother had become a Christian. In 1935 a messenger of God came to Yeotmal with a message and delivered the message and said that those who wanted their sins to be forgiven should come forward. I was moved by his message and I resigned from my service under D. S. P. and took up the profession of a preacher. At Darwha there are about seventy-five Christians and I am their Pastor. There is no mission school or hospital. There are three preachers at Darwha. The preachers go round the villages. They preach forgiveness of sin through Jesus and everlasting life. They do not abuse any other religion. None of the Christians at Darwha are under the control of foreign missionary. The foreign missionaries do not wish to exercise any control over the Indian Christians nor do they say anything about their own country. Foreign Missionaries offer no inducement to people to become Christians. During the last five or six years there have been about 25 conversions from Maratha, Mahar and Labhan. Sonbaji and Parashram are voluntary converts. I do not know of any case of conversion due to inducement of material comforts. I can definitely say that no foreign missionary has ever tried to put pressure upon anybody and I, as a Christian, wish for the progress and welfare of my country. Sometimes when I go out for preaching in public, some people enter into controversy and throw dust on me. I did not become provoked thereby but was calm and quiet. I did not retaliate because of the teaching of Jesus Christ to love even oneís enemy. I love my enemies also, I have got equal love and respect for Arya Samajist, Hindoos and other creed. I do not remember any occasion when any Christian tried to harm Hindoos anyway. If any Hindoo were to come to me and proposed that if he gets married he would become a Christian, I would not accept him as a Christian. I never offer any inducement.
To Mr. Deshpande-
The Messenger of God was Rev. Timothi. I do not regard him as God but as a servant of God. I have read Bhagwatgita in marathi. In the Bhagwatgita the four Varnas are described. I get my salary out of the Central fund. When I go out for preaching I take some money sometimes. The Central fund of the Church is made up of the contributions from the Church congregation. I also preach among the educated class. As my meetings are public there may be all kinds of people including educated people. During the last ten years there might have been one educated man out of 100 who has embraced christianity. At Unari there is a mission hospital. I have helped all those who were needy and Bought my help because that is in accordance with my religion. During the last ten years about four or five Mohammedans who became Christians. I got married two years after I came in a contact with these people. I preach my religion sometimes in schools, i.e., all schools.
To Mr. Tiwari-
said that I take money for my preaching I must make it clear that it is
not for distributing to Non-Christians. By education I mean literate
people and large number of literate persons have become Christians. I go
to preach in mission schools.
I am retired Forest Ranger in 1945. I had to retire prematurely as I was suffering from leprosy. I contacted this disease when I was in service. I was never sent by Government to any hospital for treatment. I was taking such treatments as I could get from Yeotmal Government Hospital. It had no effect. Then I was sent to Wardha leprosy colony by the Civil Surgeon but even there the treatment had no effect. I was in the hospital for ten months. The treatment was wholly ineffective. In spite of my insistence, no surgical operation was performed on me and when at last performed, it also proved futile.
I was in Wardha after I retired from service. I wrote to the Medical Superintendent of the Baitalpur Leprosy Hospital in Bilaspur district and I was admitted there. When I could not get any cure in any hospital I had to go to Baitalpur Hospital. At Baitalpur eight or ten days after the surgical operation was performed and that proved to be effective. There were 600 inpatients at the time when I joined the hospital. The majority of the patients were Hindoos, mostly from Berar and from Nagpur. Nobody in the hospital ever tried to induce any Non-Christian patient to become a christian. In the Church, prayers are conducted for bringing about recovery of the patients of the hospital. I came out completely recovered from the hospital. The foreign missionaries work in the hospital with such devotion that I cannot concede of their evil motive about India or Indians. This application which I am filing today and the leaflet attached to it is voluntary. Nobody asked me to become a Christian. This leaflet was got printed about a year ago and it embodies my personal experience. This was printed in Yeotmal. I distributed the copies to all heads of the departments and people freely and the Chief Minister and Shri Kannamwar, Health Minister.
To Mr. Deshpande, Pleader-
the occasion to meet the missionaries at Darwha. I was educated in
the Government High School, Yeotmal. The missionaries work in all
grades of society. The missionaries helped the poor people by giving
them clothing, etc., as all charitable people are expected to do when the
missionaries went out for hunt and got the game they used to distribute
the meat among the people. We also occasionally do the same thing.
I was not disgusted with the missionary hospital but with the other institutions
run by Government and private. I have read the Christian literature
as well as Bible. In spite of that I did not think of becoming a
Christian. I have never come across any inducement offered to Non-Christians
to become converts. The people are attracted to the missionary hospitals
not only because of better equipment but by their better service and treatment.
I am still suffering from leprosy but of a negative type. They get
grant from Government of India. They never keep Bibles in the bed
of patients. They never press for prayers. They never asked
people to offer prayers in the morning and evening. I am not going
to favour any religion.
I read only one or two classes and left the school because in my boyhood untouchability was very severely enforced. In my boyhood I found that my caste was kept aloof from all social system. We were not allowed to enter the temples. In 1936, I became convert to Christianity. Missionaries never offered any inducement for conversion. The villagers did not allow us to take water out of the village wells and the members of my caste had to go to three or four furlongs to take water from a tank. The water was contaminated and evil smelling and naturally was root for giving disease. We applied to the Government also for sinking a well for us but nobody took any notice. The Arya Samajist, Muslims and Christians used to come to preach their respective religions. Some of the mahars became Arya Samajist and began to wear secred thread but they were also treated as untouchables. The Christian preachers told me that religion is not concerned with mundane affairs but that if man wanted salvation he must approach Jesus Christ and know God through him. They preached that the God loves all creatures in the world and I believed in teaching particularly because God in his kindness sent his only begotten son to be sacrificed for the love of man. It is this thing that impressed me. As the Christian religion lays down that those who believed in teaching of Jesus and get baptised will alone enjoy everlasting happiness and thus I became convert. I continued to be a weaver after baptism and I was not offered any inducement such as money and land. I never come across any foreign missionary who ever attempted to interfere with our allegiance towards our Government or our country. Shirpur is in Wani taluq. I do not think that in Wani also any propaganda of this nature is going on. I am a Christian preacher. I get Rs. 60 per month out of the church fund which is made from contribution from the members of congregation. Missionaries do not give any money nor do we wish to take any money from them. I never decry Ram or Krishna in my preaching. To my knowledge no Christian preacher attack to Gods and Goddesses in their preaching. In some places there was mud flinging on me when I had been to preach there. I did not retaliate by throwing stones, etc., as it is contrary to Jesus teaching.
I am 45 years. After me the whole of my family became converted to Christianity. About hundred people of Mahar community may have been converted since I became a Christian.
To Shri Deshpande-
the last 15 years there are public wells dug in Shirpur. Anyone irrespective
of caste can go and take Water during the last 15 years. No Kunbi
ever asked me during the last 15 years not to visit his house. Nowadays
untouchability has disappeared from Hotels but not from private houses.
I know that Congress Government has passed a law against untouchability.
As Hindu religion was not thought to me, I was naturally ignorant of it
and as Christian religion was taught to me I became a Christian. I cannot
say the exact number of Christians in Yeotmal district' The Christian camps
are held once a year at some places and foreign missionaries, like Rev.
Root, come and preaches there. Shirpur is under the supervision of
Mr. Mojes, an Indian. Mr. Root also preaches. I do not know
if some land in Taroda is purchased in the name of Dr. Cline. He
never gave us any assurance that be would purchase land for us for our
The Missionaries had sent me to Rajnandgaon for Leprosy training and now I am practising at Naigaon. Dr. Cline had purchased land at Taroda. It is about 4 miles from Shirpur. In the year 1936, my brother was suffering from illness. Dr. Cline, Dr. Puffer, Dr. Timothy and Dr. Kane came to Shirpur and said that they would take my brother Pralhad to Sunna Dhoki village in Kelapur taluq. At Sunna Dhoki there was a conference of Christians. They brought him to Yeotmal and cured him of his disease and then they pressed him to get baptised. They also pressed me but I refused, so also did my brother. Marcas Titre has started an Agricultural Association at Taroda. Dr. Cline purchased the land at Taroda and went to America. Marcas Titre came to me and said that out of gratitude for the treatment which my brother had received from Dr. Cline I should make some contribution for the purchase of land and I contributed Rs. 1,500. I also gave two khandies of juar to Marcas Titre. Then Agricultural Association was started and I was told that I would get the land and that I should tell this fact to my relations also. The offer of land was made with a view to induce to be Christians. When I demanded back my Rs. 1,500 which I had lent I was asked to become a Christian. When Dr. Cline returned to Yeotmal I explained the incident that occurred in his absence. He said that I had forgotten God and that I should now get baptised. Then he assured me that he could repay my Rs. 1500 loan. I did not get anything so far. There is nothing in writing about this loan. Mr. Zingre never came to my village as a preacher.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
I am a
Hindoo from my birth. But I cannot say why I am Hindoo. I am
a Mahar. I dined at the house of Gajanan Brahmin. I never went
to any temple. Marcas Titre is my son-in-law. He became convert
in 1936. He is a palak in Naigaon. The Agricultural Association
was formed in the year 1951. Titre was a leader and I also joined
it. Dr. Cline gave my brother Bible and Gita. By Gita I mean
Christian song books. Both of them together are called Bible-geet.
I took away the books but refused to become Christian. I paid Rs. 1,500
for improvements of the land which may be about 90 or 95 acres at the instance
of Marcas Titre. That was out of the income of myself, my father
and my brother. This relates to the year 1951. I spent my saving
of 5 or 10 years. Titre had assured me that my Rs. 1,500 would be
repaid to me. I do not know how to play playing cards, kawadi and pachisa
and never indulge in them and if somebody says he is telling lie. After
Cline returned Marcas Titre denied everything. I did not make any report
in the Police Station. Zingre, a preacher, never came to my village
to preach but I know him. He never troubled me.
I was a Mahar before I became a Christian, in 1937. I was fond of Bhajan by the Hindus but I was not allowed to enter temples and I was not allowed to mix. No Christian Missionary offered me any inducement for becoming Christian. Naigaon is 6 miles from my village. I know Pralhad Mankar and his brother. We are distantly related to each other. I heard that Dr. Cline has purchased some land at Taroda. I do not believe that he would advance Rs. 1,500 as he is not able to give Rs. 5 even. I heard that he gambles and also drinks liquor. I became convert because I could not enjoy equality among Hindus. Since I became Christian, I am now enjoying that quiet calmness of mind which is assured to one as a member of society, as I can now move about on terms of equality. No Missionary ever offered me any inducement. No Foreign Missionary wants to keep us under their control. I am now a preacher for a month. I get Rs. 40 per month out of the Church fund. We do not become preachers to spite Hindus but only to impress our brothers who are downtrodden by the Hindu society. I preach the word of Bible, i.e. the teaching of Jesus Christ. What I preach is that Jesus Christ is the only Saviour and that believing in him man will be happy in this world as well as in heaven. I know Rev. Davis Moses an Indian Christian. It is not true that he is an American agent employed for the purpose of inducing the Indians to betray their country. There is an American there by name Mr. Root. Rev. Root does some work in revivalism in the Christian community, and nothing that he does is such to affect Indian nation. In my preaching, I never decry Hindu religion and its God and Goddesses. I would not like to be an Arya Samajist because I do not think that I would enjoy equality. There are many people who are still labouring under the disability of untouchability. I preach in the market places of Wani and address to all educated and illiterate. There is a fair held at Wani every year. I preach in that fair which consists of both educated and uneducated people. I preached in the year 1955.
To Mr. Deshpande-
a weaver before I became a pracharak. Mr. Root and Rev. Moses came
to our village on invitation. Christian camps are held every year
and expenses are met by subscriptions. Accounts are maintained of
the Church fund. It is out of the Church fund that the expenses of
the conferences are met. Dr. Sarpatwar had been to me and asked me if I
was willing to give evidence against Christians. There might be many
whose names I do not remember now who did not treat me with equality. I
never came across any other preachers of Non-Christian religions. I had
the opportunity to visit Naigaon along with Dhengre. Pundlik even
now treats me with the same affection though I am Christian.
Name-Shri Jesi Nathar.
The Christian Missionaries never tried to bring the Christian community under their financial or other control. There are 200 Christians at Umari. I am the Pastor of the congregation. There is a mission hospital. I preach in the hospital as well as in the villages around. I preach to all, viz., 'Hindu, Muslim and Christian patients. I never decry such great personages who are held in great reverence by Hindus such as Ram and Krishna. I only narrate the life and teaching of Jesus Christ in my preaching. No inducements are offered to any of the patients. During the last 5 years there have been 15 conversions in the hospital. Not one of them was converted by any inducement of material comfort or otherwise. They, got converted in the belief that they would get salvation by Christ. It is my belief as well as experience that Jesus Christ has alone the power. The teaching of Jesus are contained in First Chapter 17--18 Peter. There are 66 books in Bible. There are 4 gospels, Mathew, Luke, Mark and John. I also preach in the market places. Nobody troubled me in the course of my preaching or offered any obstruction. I get Rs. 98 per month. I get it from the Church fund. I am the only pracharak at Umari. There is a Christian School at Umari. We do not force Non-Christians to attend the Bible class or to read the Bible. It is not true that fine is imposed upon those who do not wish to attend. There are two doctors in the hospital, one an American and another Indian. The object of conducting the hospital is not conversion but to serve the people. It is not true that the Missionaries have the desire to interfere the allegiance of Indian Christians. Indian doctor is paid out of the hospital fund. I cannot say what source of the salary of the American Doctor. I wonít be a convert to Arya Samaj because I think that Jesus Christ alone can save. I never quarrel with others.
There is a congregation of 200 christians. About Rs. 300 are collected every month from the congregation. Out of which we send Rs. 125 to the Central fund at Yeotmal. We have got the account books of the church fund. The Central fund gets some money from the American Board for the expenses of school and propagation of religion and hospital.
To Shri Malviyaji-
Out of the hospital there are 10 conversions during the last 5 years. The prayers are offered between 10-30 and 10-55 a.m. and regular school starts from 11 a.m. There are no printed forms of permission by the guardian for their children to attend the Bible class. Generally all the Hindu boys attend the Bible class excepting one or two.
To Mr. Deshpande, Pleader-
My father was a Madrasi Brahmin. I know Dr. Bidari of Umari who is also a christian. There are no differences between Dr. Bidari and myself. Dr. Bidari is the member of the church. There is no distinction between an American Missionary and Indian Missionary. They treat us on a footing of equality. The school in Umari is under the supervision of the Indian Provisional Conference, Yeotmal. There is only one church at Yeotmal and not two. I did not say that there were any conversions in school but the conversions wore at hospital.
To Mr. Tiwari-
in the hospital were in the church, in the premises of the hospital but
not in the hospital.
I toured over Wani taluq in order to collect information for answering questionnaire. I visited Belora, Taroda, Punwat, Shirpur, Niljai Vela and Naigaon. At Naigaon, Punwat Markas Titre started an organisation known as Agril. Association and declared to the people that they would get individually Padit land, i.e. ĎCí class land if they became Christians. That was under the Grow More Food Campaign. Rev. Marcas said that he would get from Government the land for them. He also took some money from them. Some embraced Christianity in the hope of getting the land but they were disappointed.
Some of them reconverted to Hindu religion. In Punwat there are many cases of reversion to Hindu religion on account of the fact that people were disappointed in the hope of getting equality by becoming Christians.
I come across cases at Niljai such as that of Nago Pochu Yemurla from Niljai who was converted by water being sprinkled on his head.
To Mr. Tiwari-
I am a
registered medical practitioner. I am a holder of the diploma of
Ayurvedic State Faculty, Bombay. I follow allopathic method and Ayurvedic
method. I had gone to collect information which I wanted for answering
the questionnaire. I belong to no party. I went as citizen of India.
I did not know or had any idea that the Missionaries offer any inducement
for conversion. I had only heard the complaints. I visited as many
villages in the Wani taluq as I could and asked the Christians the reasons
for their conversion. Marcas Titre is not Reverend, but a pracharak.
I do not know the source from which he gets his pay. Nago, wajantri
from Niljai had gone to Taroda. He did not go in my presence.
He himself informed me about the incident. He is an Arya Samajist
now. The inducement to get Padit land from Government was offered
to about 40 persons and I have produced some papers. Out of this
40 at least 10 must have become Christians. This was in the year
1949-50. It was about 2 or 3 years ago that the Grow More Food Campaign
was started. I cannot say whether those who were converted to Christianity
are still Christians or not. I cannot say how many reverted to Hindu religion.
At Punwat I came to know that some Christians reverted to Hinduism.
These people were given hopes of giving land before becoming christians,
as they did not get the land they reverted to Hinduism. I did not
ask Abraham Moon of Shirpur why he became christian. I have not brought
any of the reconverted people before the Committee. Rev. Devid Moses
of Wani did not come to my house to convert me but I know him. They
cannot dare to approach me as I am an educated man and know my religion
well. No body else came to my house to induce me to become Christian.
I reside at Yeotmal since 1933. I am a municipal member at Yeotmal. I was elected on congress ticket. I am still a Congressman and Chairman of P.W.D. of the Municipality. This is the third year of my career. It each in the Union Biblical Seminary. It is only meant for Christians. I train the pracharaks. I do not teach my students to use methods of inducement for conversion. I get Rs. 200 per month. I get my salary from the Union Biblical Fund in which contributions are received from various institutions of India. It has no connection with Mission fund. I cannot say whether any money is received from America towards this Union. There are four foreign Missionaries, one from America, one from Switzerland, one from Canada and one from New Zealand. There is no suggestion to them to establish separate State. There may be 300 Christians at Yeotmal. I had been to Umri, Wani and Pusad. I do not believe that anybody is converted by inducement at Wani or at any other place. It is not true that any woman was detained in the Mission Hospital at Washim, in order that she may part with her child. This is all false.
To Shri Deshpande, Pleader-
I do not know the salary which he foreign Missionaries who are engaged in the teaching work of the Seminary get. I did not think it necessary to enquire into the matter, even though they were my co-workers. I did not ask them. I did not come across any Christians who reverted to Hinduism in the course of my tour. I know Dr. Cline. He has purchased a farm there in the name of Seminary.
I do not
know the cost at which it is purchased. I know Marcas Titre very well.
It is not true that Marcas Titre has started any Agricultural Assn. I do
not know that Hindus became Christians while they were patients in the
hospital at Umri. I only visit schools, hospitals and Christian friends
and relatives, and no one else. I do not get any travelling allowance.
I cannot now recollect when I actually became a Congressman for the first
time. Before that I never stood for any election. In my ward
No. 23 from which I was elected there is no Christian majority.
Taroda is three miles from Darwha. Many Christian preachers visit Taroda, several times. I have heard Benjamin Palak, Sumanta Dhelpe, Keshaorao and Yashawantrao. They said why are you in darkness, come to light and also that we should not remain in poverty for ever. Miss Alcorn gave me a cart and two bullocks. She was also saying that I should become a christian and therefore I embraced Christianity. For the last 30 years I have been hearing these teachings. They used to say that Ram lost his wife to Ravan and that Krishna was a licentious and that Hanuman had a long tail. Why should we worship these persons? This is what I am constantly hearing these people preaching. That American lady also gave me clothes. As the Christians would not help my son getting married I reverted to Hindu religion. Some of my relations also became Christians following my example. They still continue as Christians. I am a pradhan by caste.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
I do not
know where this Miss Alcord is now. I have not seen her for the last
There are 7 churches in Darwha and I am pastor at large. My duty is to go round and strengthen the Christians in their faith that they should be firm. It is a lie that our preachers say anything against Ram or Krishna or other Goddesses of Hindus as stated by Jairam. We do not offer any inducement. I get my pay from the Conference fund whose treasurer is Mr. Hiwale. No Missionary wishes ill of India. The seven churches are in Digras, Kharadgaon, Khatgaon, Ner and Chandni-Darwha. Most of the Christians are from the untouchable class. I can give evidence of the fact that before the advent of the Niyogi Committee to Darwha side the Sub-Inspectors of Police asked them why they had become Christians. The Sub-Inspector did not say that they should revert to Hinduism but the patels and patwaries tried to induce the Christians to revert to Hinduism. Five people were called in this way at Kanzara and one at Digras. This Sub-Inspector was from Ladkhed. There is not one convert who has been induced by the gift of land or any other thing. I know Keshaorao who is a Christian preacher. I know Yeshwantrao who is a pracharak. Suman Dhilpe is also a pracharak. Benjamin is the paster of Digras church. These people never say that Krishna was licentious or that the Gods of the Hindus are stone idols nor did they decry Ram. I know definitely that Miss Alcorn would never offer any inducement of the kind stated by Jairam. Distribution of clothes is also a lie.
To Shri Deshpande-
been in Darwha since 1951, before that I used to visit occasionally.
Miss Alcorn now resides at Wani. She went there in 1952. Before
that she was at Darwha. She was Station in charge at Darwha.
I never accompanied on her tour in the villages. Since 1951 there
must have been 30 or 35 conversions at Darwha. No one among those
whom I converted have reverted to Hinduism. But I know among those
who were converted before came back to Hinduism. Those who did not
come up to the standard of Christian teachings went back to Hinduism such
as Jairam. Their names were struck off of the rolls of Christians
when they ceased to be Christians. I have to shepherd the christians
not, because their faith is slackening but to revive their faith.
I look after the welfare of the Christian community. I give medicines
to Christians who are needy. I have not given clothes to non-Christians
There was a Mission school at Darwha. It has ceased to exist for the last 5 years. I was educated in that school in the first class. Students at the beginning of the school hours had to join to offer Christian prayers. All students whether Christians or not had to join the prayer. On Sundays there used to be reading of Sacred Scriptures and any boy who did not attend was fined one anna. Besides their teachings the text-books they used to teach about Bible and Jesus Christ. They said that Jesus Christ was the only Saviour and that Hindu Gods were merely idols and they decried Hindu Gods.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
brought here yesterday by Paramanand who is a cloth dealer. He gave
me food yesterday and today at Dharamshala. Paramanand paid me Rs.
4 for purchasing ticket. He asked me to say what I knew and what
was taught to me in school. I never paid any fine. I do not
know of any boy who had paid any fine. Sumantrao Dhilpe told me that
fine would be levied for the absence to Bible class on Sunday. I
used to always attend the Scripture Sunday class except once. I did
not pay the fine of one anna for my absence.
I am teacher in India Free Methodist Conference School. It is a primary and Middle School. The students are Christians as well as non-Christians. Sixty per cent of the students are non-Christians. The Bible is taught every day but not during school hours. Hindu boys also attend the class, as well as Christian boys. There is no compulsion on the Hindu boys to attend the class. It is not true as Damdya says that fines are imposed for absence from the prayer class. The Bible class starts at 10-30 a.m. and the regular work of the school begins at 11 a.m. before the regular work starts there is a prayer for 10 minutes. All the boys of all classes join in this prayer which is Christian. We pray that God may help the boys in their studies in the school and also promote the welfare of the country. We never impress upon the boys in the school any attachment towards Christianity. Positively we, I can say, do nothing in the school to interfere with the allegiance of the students to Government. I do not believe whatever has stated by Mahadeo. This is all wrong. The school at Darwha was closed before 6 years ago. We never decry Ram or Krishna in our teaching to the boys and when we offer prayers to God. This is all false.
To Mr. Deshpande, Pleader-
No. 15 is my brother. Because my parents were Christians I am a Christian.
I know Dr. Bidari of Umri. I do not think that there are any differences
between the Christians and Dr. Bidari. Dr. Bidari is a medical practitioner.
I do not know whether the doctors of Mission hospital brought any pressure
on Dr. Bidari to leave the place. Dr. Yardi and Acquilla are in a
charge of Mission Hospital. I want all the boys to stand but if somebody
does not stand I will not punish. I do not mind if they sit. I do
not take any disciplinary action if he does not stand up for prayer.
They never disobey and if they do not obey we never punish them.
We have not yet introduced the forms of permission from the guardian that
his ward should attend the prayer.
I have heard the Christian preaching out of number. I heard Sumantrao Dhilpe, Rathod Master, Banjamin, Palak and Miss Alcorn, preaching. They used to say that Hindu religion is false, and that it is sinful. About 17 or 18 years ago I became Christian. I was then about 17 or 18 years of age and I was given assurance that I will be forgiven of my sins and that I will be educated and would be getting married. Miss Alcorn showed me a lame girl saying that I should marry her. I declined. I was Christian for 12 months. I was engaged as a servant by the Missionaries and was driving the tonga. That American Auntie (Alcorn) used to pay my salary. I actually witnessed that lady distributing the salaries to the persons above named. Hindus never threw dust or disturb their preaching. I disliked Christian religion, so I came back to Hinduism.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
is not a single Christian in Taroda now. In their preachings they
used to say that Jesus was the true God and that Gods worshipped by Hindus
which were nothing but stone idols, are entirely false. They also
said that salvation lies in the Christianity. I was a Pradhan. Because
I did not get salvation in Pradhan caste I became Christian. But
I could not get salvation in Christian religion. I was not a sinner.
It is righteous people who are in quest of salvation. Benjamin sprinkled
water on my head when I became a Christian. Suman Dhelke and Rathod
Master came to my village for preaching and it was by their preaching I
became a Christian.
I am studying at Darwha in Shivaji High School in X class. I had gone to the Mission School for 3rd because I was allowed free education. During prayer time Christians and non-Christians joined. This prayer was compulsory for all whether Christian or non-Christian. This relates to the year 1949. They used to praise Jesus as the only Saviour and decry Hindu religion and Gods. On Sunday morning we were again called for prayers. Any absentee was fined one anna. I was fined 2 or 3 times.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
School was opened in the year 1943 to my knowledge. In the Shivaji
School we offer prayers to God. In the Shivaji School students are
required to attend prayers but the absentees are not fined. The Mission
School is closed for the last 5 or 6 years. What the Christian teachers
said was that Christ was the Saviour but on the other hand that the Hindu
Gods like Krishna were licentious. There is no picture of Jesus Christ
in Shivaji School. In that school nobody makes any mention.
There are Christian boys and girls in that school. I am in that school
for the last 5 years and started from the V standard. I hold a certificate
of IV standard from Mission school.
I am a born Christian and by experience I became a true Christian at the age of 22. I am at Wani since 1947. I was at Ralegaon as pracharak before coming to Wani. As a result of my preaching two families at Ralegaon became Christians within one year. Both these families were Mahar. They were literate. I told them Jesus was the only man who sacrificed his life for redeeming the man from sin and they believed in this message of Christ. I never offered any inducement of material gain or comfort. There were no foreign Missionaries. I used to get my pay from Rev. Samudre, who was the treasurer of the India Provisional Conference. The Conference transferred me to Wani from Ralegaon. From 1947 to date I must have converted about 200 persons. Among them there was not one who became a convert by inducement of any kind. About half the number of converts were literate and the other half illiterate. I am a supervisor in charge of Eastern district which includes Kelapur and Wani taluqs. The Methodist Conference gives me Rs. 157 per month. I do not receive any money from America. At Wani there is a retired Missionary by name Miss Alcorn and a gentleman by name Mr. Root. There is no School or dispensary at Wani. Our churches are organised at Ralegaon, Rajur, Wani, Shirpur, Taroda, Mindoli, Maregaon and Umri. At Umri, there is a hospital and a school. In the hospital no unfair means are used to convert people. We have never taught our preachers to resort to unfair means such as offering material aid. I know Dr. Sarpatwar. It is not true that at Taroda, Naigaon and Shirpur that an offer was made of Padi land to induce people to become Christians. It is false that I enticed these 200 people into Christianity by offering any inducement. I did not hear that Pundlik advanced Rs. 1,500 for the cultivating expenses. Marcas Titre is not a preacher. He is not a Reverend. Reverend alone can baptise. It is not true that American money is received here for promoting any movement against the interest of Bharat. Dr. Sarpatwar who is the Secretary of the Hindu Mahasabha went to Taroda and said to the Christian women in the absence of male members that they should reconvert to Hindu religion. Foreign Missionaries do not take part in politics to my knowledge. The Missionaries join the people in saluting the National Flag. At all the fairs which we attend we address our preachings to educated and uneducated alike.
To Mr. Malviyaji-
I know that money is received in India from America and I do not know how it is used and the treasurer will be able to say definite.
To Mr. Deshpande, Pleader-
Out of 200 people converted about 2 or 3 families consisting of 5 or 6 persons reverted to Hinduism. Dr. Cline has purchased some land at Taroda. It is purchased for the benefit of the Seminary. He is American. He paid Rs. 37,000 for 77 acres of land. To cultivate that land about 5 people would be required. Weaving Christian Co-operative Association was started at Taroda of which Marcas Titre happened to be Secretary. In the absence of Dr. Cline in America Titre was managing the land.
I know one Ramji Christian of Wani. He was living in Mission quarter. It is not a fact that we have driven him out and no differences are there between us. I know Dr. Bidari very well. I do not know whether Dr. Bidari was disallowed to practice at Umri.
Bhajans of Yeshu. I was not present when Dr. Sarpatwar approached
Christian ladies at Taroda. I had occasion to visit school while it was
functioning. I do not know Nago Wajantri (musician). Marcas
Titre never baptised Nago, musician. Whenever I go to distant places
like Rajnandgaon, Allahabad, Ellichpur, Sagar I get my travelling allowance
and other expenses.
I became a convert from Mahar caste. No material inducement was offered to me but as my sins were forgiven I became a Christian. I believed by becoming a Christian I would be forgiven all my sins. I am illiterate. I had called Nago Wajantri to my house to play music but never sprinkled water on his head because I have no power to baptise. I was after him for many days that he should become a Christian. I never offered him any inducement of material gain. I am not a Mission preacher but an independent pracharak. Nobody pays me. I know Pundlik Devaji Mankar of Naigaon. He is my father-in-law. He is on visiting terms with me. He is a gambler and a drunkard. I have been often advising him to give up his habit and he should become a Christian. I told him as I got salvation so he would also get salvation. He tried to secure land through me and pressed me often to do so. Dr. Clive purchased 87 acres of land in my village. This was about 5 or 6 years ago. I am Dr. Cliveís Diwanji. I carry on the farming on his behalf. The whole of the land is under my management with six servants under me. There was an attempt to form an agricultural organisation at Taroda and Pundlik collected about Rs. 1,500 which he wasted in gambling. He did not pay me Rs. 1,500 for cultivation. I did not ask him to become a Christian when he demanded his money back, as stated by him. I get and on some remuneration from Dr. Cline but not a fixed salary.
Volunteers-Since the appointment of the Committee Dr. Sarpatwar and Shri Deshmukh go round, the villages and say that unless all the Christians become Hindus they will be turned out by the Bharat Sarkar. They harassed me so much that I had merely to look up to heaven for saving us. I did not report to police because it is not in my religion. In my absence they came to my house and looked for some pictures in my house and they also said that they should become Hindus.
To Shri Deshpande, Pleader-
never gone to Pundlik asking for Juar in the absence of Dr. Cline.
There are four Hindus out of six servants that are working on the farm
of Dr. Cline. The income from the farm is used for some charitable
purpose, i.e., for Biblical work. This is a Seminary where preachers
are trained. I know Mr. Rout of Wani. He also goes round in his motor
car preaching his religion.
I heard a lecture in Missionary compound at Yeotmal on the 14th August 1954. It was a Christian gathering. I was the only one Non-Christian. I got an invitation which I am producing now to attend to the gathering. S. Kumar from Jagdishpur spoke on the occasion. After referring to the development work and others the lecturer said that there was internal dispute in the Christian community on account of various denominations apart from Roman Catholics and Protestants as also the survival of the idea of caste among the Christian community. After the appointment of this Enquiry Committee if the Americans are asked to go away from the country the Christians will have to stand themselves and they would not be able to do so unless they unite. He also said that if there is difference amongst us how shall we be able to conquer India. I understood by the words ďconquer IndiaĒ, that he wanted the Christian community also to gain political power in the country.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
born here, to the best of my knowledge. My grandfather was residing
in Gudgaon district. The boy who invited me was my friend for about
five or six months before. I know S. Kumar who gave lecture.
If the Christian community has no strength of unity and solidarity it will
have to go under. I have heard the prayer addressed to God that His
Kingdom should come and I understood that. Christian rule will come
over whole India.
Name-Rev. Vasant Samudre
a notice on the 10th at 1 p.m. I had received no intimation from the Committee.
Dr. Acquilla also was informed. I have not read any press note. I
am the Pastor of the Church at Yeotmal and also a teacher in Seminary.
We teach nothing that is derogatory to the Hindu religion. I belong
to the Free Methodist Church and there is a Church fund made up of contribution
received from all the churches in Yeotmal district. I get my salary
from the Seminary. Twenty Churches in India send their contribution
to the Seminary here out of which I get my salary. That fund also
receives grants from America. To the best of my knowledge and belief
Missionaries do not offer any material inducement in order to secure conversion
and I am sure that they never do anything that is prejudicial to India.
There is a misunderstanding.
Domdi and Babu Sahai, all of Kanzara.
About 11 Christians had come to Kanzara. They stayed there for one month. They had encamped there. There were four foreign Missionaries. They used to exhibit films and give medicines. One of the foreign Missionaries asked us to pray to God and then declared that we all became Christians. They further asked us to discard our Gods and flags. When they said that they would sink well for them. Our names were taken down and declared that we became Christians. The mother of one of them by name Dulki said that when she came to know about it she was sorry and she went to the foreign Missionary protesting against her son becoming Christian, as she wanted to die in Hindu religion. We are Mahar.
To Shri Tiwari of Mungeli-
about the time of last Diwali in Kartik month. I canít say whether they
came from Darwha or elsewhere. They pressed us to be Christians but
we declined. What they said was that they would sink well for us
if we became Christians. It was Ushmaís father who said this.
first a Hindu Sadhu but I embraced Christianity. I was by caste Mahar.
I was an imposter who wanted to earn his life. While I was a Hindu,
Hindus objected to my going to worship to their temple. My idea in
becoming a Sadhu was to attain a higher status. In spite of my being
a Sadhu, Hindus did not admit me in their side. When I once went
to Vithal Mandir and was touching the feet of the deity, one man pulled
me away and drove me away. So I prayed to God that if you have any
truth in you, you will award punishment to such Hindus. We were never
taught in the school, because we were untouchables. I became a Christian
because Jesus Christ washed out my sins with His Blood.
I feel that in spite of my country being independent, we Indian Christians are not independent. We are able to meet only one-third of the total expenditure on our Christian work and I cannot say from where two-thirds comes. In this Free Methodist Mission, which is operating in Yeotmal has not been able to make any progress although other Missions could establish schools, hospitals and other things due to the policy of the Mission which is detrimental to our Indian Christians. The process of making Indian Christian leaders is extremely slow.
The present Missionaries should give positions of leadership to Indian Christians. Unless the Indian Christians are made competent to handle their own affairs there would always be a clique of Indian Christians working under foreign Missionaries who would be doing every thing in the name of Christ. Until that is done we will be maintained as slaves. My conviction is that there should be no addition to the number of Missionaries in India in the best interest of Christian Community. It is my opinion that Government should take steps to stop the foreign Missionaries coming to India. The Indian Christians and Christian non-Mission workers should be consulted before the foreign Missionary is allowed to work in local area. I do not wish that the foreign Missionaries now in India should withdraw but I sincerely desire that Indian Missionaries should be at the helm of affairs. The unused land, which was granted to the foreign Missionaries by the British Government, should be given to Indian Christians at the rates at which the Missionaries got it from Government. If the leadership passes into the hands of the Indian Christians, the poor Christians and others will be taken care of in a better way.
To Mr. Tiwari of Mungeli-
I reside at Umri for the last 14 years. I was called to the hospital as a compounder and male surgical nurse and an anesthetic. During the absence of foreign doctor there I conducted the hospital for 5 years. I was sent for Inter Science once for all. I used to get Rs. 1,000 per year as scholarship I failed in the Inter Science Examination. I am registered Medical Practitioner. I wrote a letter to the hospital at the instance of a Missionary. I did not get the post and he told me that I should not come to this area for 4 or 5 years, as I was popular there. I did not take the initiative in writing the letter. There may be about 200 Indian Christians. There is only one family of foreign Christians. The Missionary doctor is there from 4 or 5 years. Before him there was foreign doctor for one year. As there was no foreign doctor between 1941-46 I run the hospital. I do not know who worked between 1946-50. After I made the statement to this Committee last year, a foreign Missionary came to me and expressed his regret for asking me to leave Umri. I do not know any complaints.
To Mr. Mahajan-
Indian Christians will be able to shoulder the responsibilities if the foreign Missionaries cease to work. The foreign Missionaries do observe some difference between Indian Christians and their own countrymen. The amounts that are collected from the Indian Christians are handled by Indian Christians.