I am the Rajpurohit of the Dharamjaigarh Raj. For services rendered to the Raj family, our family was granted two villages Mafi named Amli Digra and Sarasmar (Lakshmipur). These villages were originally inhabited by Uraons and other Adivasis. Till 1939, there was no Christian in these villages.
One Bulchu Uraon had taken up residence in our village from Mangarpur. He wanted financial help to put up an embankment in a neighbouring village, but I objected and asked him to have an embankment in the village in which he resided. He, therefore, left the village and took up residence at Ludeg. He complained to the foreign Missionary Padri at Ludeg and one day the Padri came to our village and asked me why I was troubling Bulchu and others by not allowing them money for putting up an embankment. He also said that he would advance loan and help Uraons for the embankment. The Padri was a foreigner and had a beard. I do not know his name. Money was advanced to Bulchu in consequence of which he and his family were made Christians. I know that he had been made a Christian because of the loan advanced to him as it has become an open secret in the area that foreign Missionaries make converts by advancing such loans. After Bulchu’s conversion, foreign Missionaries started visiting our village regularly. After some time it was widely circulated that Christians were not troubled by ghosts, etc. As a result of their efforts almost the entire village of Lakshmipur (Saras) was converted to Christianity. At that time the then Ruler of Dharamjaigarh was a minor and the Estate was under superintendence. When the Ruler assumed Gaddi, I complained to him about the manner in which the whole village and other villages had been converted I do not know whether any enquiry was made but after some time an Act was passed which prevented change of faith induced by force, fraud, promises, etc. This Act was widely notified and entries in the Wajib-ul-urj was made.
Although I had no occasion personally to hear a foreign Missionary preaching, I have several times heard the preachings of Indian Missionary. They say that the rule of foreigner would again be spread in India and, therefore, people should not be afraid of becoming Christians. I too worship Hindu Gods and Goddesses and pamphlets containing contemptuous references to Hindu beliefs and religion, are widely circulated. I have seen foreign Missionaries, their families as well as Indian Missionaries distributing such leaflets in fairs, etc.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- Bulchu was not given any money by the Missionaries
in my presence. It is my inference because he was demanding money
from me. I was not present at the time of Bulchu’s conversion but
I know he and his family had become Christians, and had seen them living
like a Christian. After Bulchu and because of him others also became
Christians. They were all Uraons. Although I did not know the
exact amount advanced to each, I know certain that all the people who were
converted had been given money. I have knowledge that these Missionaries
advanced loans to Uraons and when they are not in a position to repay on
account of mounting heavy interest they are asked to become Christians
and told that the amount would not be recovered. They thus become
Christians. They hide the facts. When I asked some of the converts
whether they receive the monetary help they would continue and reply in
the negative. “Sadgurukhoj” besides “Chandra kalasadhuni Wrutant”
are some of the pamphlets which are distributed. I have some in my possession
but have not brought here today.
I work as a Purohit for about 35 villages around Pathalgaon. I am a cultivator also. In course of my visits to villages people had come and told me about the activities of Christians and Christian Missionaries. I had been told by them that they became Christians because they had borrowed money from the Missionaries which they could not repay. Others had told me that it is being preached that foreign rule would again be established in India. At village Baniagaon and certain other villages, a big gathering of foreign and Indian Missionaries was held in course of which a red liquid was circulated amongst the audience of Uraons who tasted it. According to Uraon customs, food prepared by non-Uraons is not permitted.
I have also beard prayers held in Churches. Although I have not gone inside. I have heard prayers, etc., from near distance. Shouts of “Jharkhand ki Jai” are uttered along with “Prabhu ki jai”, and pamphlets advocating Jharkhand are also distributed, I have beard this in various churches 5 to 7 times last year. I beard this in the churches of Pathalgaon, Baniagaon. Ludeg and Mahadeodang. I cannot name the Mission to which these churches belong.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- They say that “this is Hindu raj and if we get majority,
our own raj will rule”. “Jharkhand ki jai” is uttered inside churches and
also outside when meetings are held. I am in possession of pamphlets about
Jharkhand. They were distributed by the Christians. All Christians
support the demand for Jharkhand. I have not brought them with me but I
can produce them. Their propaganda is chat this is Hindu Raj and
they would like to have an independent state of Christian Uraons and they
go on instigating the Christian Uraons also. I have myself heard foreign
Missionaries also making propaganda for Jharkhand in this manner. I did
not give any counter-lecture.
I am Chairman. Hindu Scheduled Caste and Tribes Welfare Organization; this institution has been started only recently but I am doing social work for the last twenty years or so. In the year 1933-34, grain prices had gone down considerably and people had become very poor; land revenue had to be recovered by force. Taking advantage of this situation, Father Galaghar, a foreign Missionary, belonging to the Roman Catholic Mission of Tapkara, sent word to all people in the former State of Udaipur that those who wanted money could borrow the same from the Mission authorities. As a result of this widespread offer, several persons of Udaipur State went to Tapkara in the hope of getting monetary assistance. Seventy or eighty persons of village Ludeg had gone for the loans: on return, they informed me that they were given varying loans on condition that they would become Christians. The people who went were mostly Uraons although some of other community had also gone; those who had been given loans were asked to remove their Choti. I had heard of the experience of Christian converts in Jashpur State and, therefore, felt alarmed at this widespread conversions of Uraons on promise of loans. etc. I, therefore, called a gathering of elders and told them the danger of large number of Uraons becoming Christians. We presented an application to Murphy, I.C.S., who was then the Political Agent stating that conversions were being purchased. Murphy visited Ludeg and conducted an enquiry. Nearly six or seven persons deposed before him that they got money from the Missionaries and so became Christians and there were some who said that because they did not agree to become Christians they were not given loans. Murphy was also a Roman Catholic and the Mission at Tapkara which had organised this was also a Roman Catholic Mission. When Murphy was convinced of the truth of our allegations, Father Galaghar was transferred to some other Mission. Activities of that Mission were prohibited in Dharamjaigarh State. It was also ordered that foreign Missionaries would not enter the State without permission of the Government and would not stay for more than 48 hours. After these orders were passed, the Christian authorities were ready to open the schools, etc., in villages situated on the border of Udaipur State but within the Jashpur State territory. Those persons of Udaipur State who had borrowed loans from the foreign Missionaries at Tapkara sent their children to such schools. Missionaries continued to visit villages in Udaipur State after permission to take part in the funeral ceremony, etc., and those occasions they did propaganda and advanced loans. They also used to attend patients who were seriously ill.
When the Udaipur State was merged with Madhya Pradesh, Rev. Tigga of Jashpur entered Udaipur and remained there in defiance of the previous orders. As the previous orders had not been cancelled, Rev. Tigga was arrested and was in confinement for seven days. When the previous Act and Orders passed were repealed, the activities of Missionaries were expanded. A bungalow constructed in Ludeg, distribution of milk prepared out of imported powder was started and money-lending continued. The old methods of preaching and making converts were continued. As a result thereof there was a large number of conversions soon after integration, although in the last two years, the numbers have gone down. Foreign Missionaries of the Roman Catholic Mission act as their recruiting agents for tea gardens in Andaman and Assam and also for timber sawing in Andaman. Some Christian families were sent and on return after a year or so, they brought good and attractive articles and clothes. On seeing that their Uraon relatives naturally enquired of them how they could obtain those articles and were told to become Christians. They were told that unless they became Christians the foreign Missionaries would not send them.
On 25-10-1954, a big procession of Christians was taken out in village Ludeg and it was given out that a reception for the visit of the Dutch Ambassador to Ludeg was being arranged. The procession went to the Church and I was also present there. As I did not see any Government officer present, I wanted t6 verify the information about the Ambassador or his visit, and was told that an Ambassador of Holland had arrived. Lectures were delivered and the foreign visitor also delivered the lecture. The Cardinal and other foreign Missionaries also delivered lecture. The topic was “Jharkhand”. The foreign Missionary said that the Uraons should unite and demand a separate Jharkhand province as in d the present set-up no justice was being done and they suffered from various difficulties in recruitment in services, etc. On behalf of Patel of Ludeg, I have been entrusted with the job of making entries in the village book of visitor’s statistics. In that book names and addresses of outside visitors have also to be entered. I sent the book to the Missionary in charge, Ludeg Mission, with a request to enter the names and addresses of all the visitors and return it after entering the names of three foreigners whereas six persons had come. I, therefore, wrote a letter to him requesting that the names and addresses given be also entered and details about the Dutch Ambassador whose visit-had been publicised be entered. On my written request, Father Cardinal endorsed as follows:-
This endorsement was not signed by him. The matter was reported to the higher authorities and I have sent the originals to them. I file the pamphlet as “Jharkhand Git”.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- I do not know whether Muslims are Ahile-Kitab (believing
in the same book). I have my own cultivation and do social work in an honorary
capacity. Islam makes no restrictions about dress. When the
Committee toured Udaipur State last year I could not appear being ill.
I have submitted a reply to the Questionnaire.
Last year, I constructed a house in Bade Gontiapara of Ludeg. Formerly, I was living in another para. This new construction adjoins that of Karlu’s, a Christian. When I started construction he asked me not to do so and said if I built up a house in that locality I would have to become Christian. I did not listen to and since then I am being troubled in every way. My new house is on my own land.
the matter to the Police and a case has been started against Padri Cardinal
and six other Christians. The case is pending.
During the depression of 1933-34, a foreign Missionary of Tapkara called number of villagers of my village, advanced loans to them, cut their Chotis and converted them as Christians. After intergration Rev. Tigga in defiance of the existing order visited Ludeg and on my report he was prosecuted and sentenced. When the old laws were repealed Missionary Activities in Udaipur were expanded considerably. The Christian Missionaries of Ludeg carry on propaganda in favour of Jharkhand.
after the merger of the States with Madhya Pradesh, the demand for Jharkhand
was intensified. I was Vice-President of the District Congress Committee,
Udaipur. Report were given to me that 300 families of non-Christians
from Jashpur area t their original villages because of threats given b
the Missionaries that on Jharkhand being established they would either
have to become Christians or lose their property. I was also informed
that 150 such families left the Jashpur area and settled in Udaipur and
300 from Surguja. The result of my enquiries was communicated to
the higher authorities and official enquiry was also made. The Chief
Minister of Madhya Pradesh himself toured that area. At Kunkuri Camp,
black flags were shown to the Chief Minister by the Christians. I
was not present at the time.
Several years ago I had borrowed Rs. 6 from a foreign Missionary of Tapkara. He would not give the loan, unless I got my Choti cut. I became a Christian. I became a Christian and got Rs. 6. The next year I repaid Rs. 12 including interest and became a Uraon again. When I was reconverted, Karlus, Christian teacher, Ludeg, started harassing me in many ways. He was always asking me to become a Christian and to send my children to the Christian school. When I did not agree Karlus said that he would falsely involve me in a case and get me imprisoned. Last year, I was falsely implicated in a case by Karlus but fortunately I was acquitted. I had to incur an expenditure.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- It was about 15 years ago that a loan of Rs. 6 was
given to me.
In 1948 soon after the merger of the former States in Madhya Pradesh, an agitation had been started by the Missionaries of Ranchi and Jashpur and that Jashpur and Udaipur States should merge with Bihar. Meetings used to be held and I had attended one of such meetings at Jashpur. It was addressed by Joel Lakra and also by some foreign Missionaries of Ranchi, Gholeng and other places. Lakra and the foreign Missionaries told the audience that their demand for the merger of Jashpur and Udaipur with Bihar should be made.
Foreign Missionaries act as recruiting agents and I know of some instances in which Uraons had been recruited and sent to Assam. I once met Father D’Souza, a foreign Missionary, to request him not to send Punaram, a relation of mine, but I was threatened and asked to go back by the foreign Missionary. Punaram has not yet come back from Assam.
I am at present Vice-President of the Tahsil Congress Committee, Udaipur, and a Janapada member. I visit several villages where we have our schools. Christians do not send their children to our schools.
in my possession today a few receipts of loan transactions and I am filing
I am patel
of Kudekela. About 2 years ago the Christian Missionaries of the
village had encroached on land and constructed a church. I reported
the matter to the Revenue authority and they were asked to dismantle it.
The foreign Missionary of Ludeg came to my house, entered my verandah and
gave various threats to me for having reported the matter. A few
months after demolition of the church the Missionaries have again taken
possession of the land. I have informed the Revenue Inspector with the
About 8 or 9 years ago some members of my family had become Christian. Although they were persuading me also to embrace Christianity, I did not agree. The foreign Missionary in that area always told me that if I became a Christian I would get a literate wife and that he would appoint me a pracharak of the area. On account of this promise, I became Christian and I was appointed pracharak. Then I was married with the Christian girl. I worked as pracharak for 2 years, and then got myself reconverted. After I got myself reconverted, my wife ran away from my house. I repaid the debt incurred by my father from the foreign Missionary at Tapkara. Father Bulkans and Michel Munsi and others come to me and tell me that foreign rule will soon be established in India and therefore I will be severely punished. I did not become a Christian again. Those Uraons who had become Christians as a result of my preaching were reconverted after I became a Hindu.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- When I was a pracharak I used to tell other Uraons
that by becoming Christians they would become better citizens, better educated
and will follow a good religion.
There are about 20 families of Christians in my village. Foreign and Indian Missionaries come to this village for preaching. They tell us that their rule will soon be established and that we will get other advantages it we became Christians.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- I know that the present Government is Congress Government.
about 10 or 15 Christians of 4 or 5 neighbouring villages came to my village
and asked me to call a meeting and to advise the people to become Christians.
They told me that they had been sent by the Padrisahab to tell the villagers
to become Christians otherwise they will not be allowed to remain in village.
They also threatened to dismiss me from my office of Patel.
one of the two wives of Rasai. Bharatsai, my step son, had become
a Christian. Ramsai turned him out of the house and gave him property,
as his share. Ramsai died before 4 years. Bharatsai took me
to the bungalow of the Padri. He is a foreign Missionary. The
Father asked me to get converted to Christianity but I refused. On
my return to house, Bharatsai asked me to turn out of the house.
Then he cut away my crops and removed. He does so even now.
He is harassing me by ploughing my crop. As he does not allow me
to cultivate my field, I maintain myself by labour.
About 10 years ago I became converted to Christianity. A foreign Missionary Padri of Tapkara told me that on my conversion my children would be educated and that I would be happier. I could not attend the Church for 2 months about 4 years ago. When I went to cultivate my field with my brother he was attacked four Christians. They also beat me. They discharged an arrow at me as a result of which I sustained an injury on back. My brother was in the hospital for 21 days and I for 8 days. Our assailants were prosecuted and convicted and sentenced to imprisonment. Then the foreign Padrisaheb had come to me to induce me to become Christian. Father said that it was my choice to become Christian or not.
Mr. Shinde.- I remained as Christian for 10 years. I was a Hindu
at the time of the assault. I did not like to continue as Christian.
In my village there are 20 Christian families and 8 Hindu families. I am a Hindu when the Hindus were celebrating the festival of “Karama”, the Christians objected to it. They uprooted the tree round which the people were dancing and performing puja. They asked us to have the “Karmas” performed elsewhere, i.e., somewhere outside the village. We tried to argue with them saying that it was our ancient custom and our forefathers were observing it from old times. As we did not show any resentment there was no occasion for breach of peace. We replanted the uprooted branch of the tree, and danced round the tree, at the same place.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- The Christian residents of the village had embraced
Christianity 10 years ago. At their instance the “Karma” was stopped
until 1954 when we resumed it and when there was a dispute. This
year we had performed the “Karma” at the same place.
15 or 16 years ago a foreign Padri had come to my village and induced my
father to go to Tapkara. He got converted to Christianity there and
brought Rs. 12 from the Missionary. After my father’s death which
was about 6 years later I returned the amount. My father had repaid
Rs. 6 and a balance of Rs. 6 left but I had to pay to Rs. 12. My
deceased brother’s daughter was living with me and I was supporting her.
My brother and his wife were Christians. I arranged the marriage of my
brother’s daughter with a Hindu boy. Hearing this, foreign Missionary
and pracharaks came and scolded me asking me not to give the girl to a
Hindu. She could only be given to Christian. The girl was married
to a Hindu and I was inflicted a penalty of Rs. 40 by the Christians. I
could not pay the amount so they removed my bullocks. They also demanded
their panchayat fees and in lieu of that they removed two of my goats.
About 10 years ago the foreign Missionary and his Munshi came to my village and said that those who are in need of money may take money from him. My father took a loan of Rs. 100 from the Missionary. The Missionary went away and returned after a month and a half and demanded back his money from my father. My father said he could not repay it, as he was poor. Then the Missionary said that he must pay otherwise he should become a Christian. My father subsequently became a Christian as he could not pay. He also asked me from my father and took me away. I was taught in the school and remained a Christian for sometime, then subsequently I left the Christianity and became a Hindu. As I and my father became Hindus, the Missionary demanded back his money. We paid him Rs. 118. He also demanded expenses of my education. We have not paid that. In 1952, there was an Election. The Missionary wanted that I should vote for the Praia Party. When I declined to do so, he threatened me that he would recover the amount that was spent on my education and threatened.
boy came to my village and wanted to marry a Hindu girl. We said
that you are a Christian and how can we give our girl to a christian.
He went away. After some time he came again and said that he had
become Hindu. Believing, we gave him a girl in marriage. Subsequently
after marriage it was discovered that he was a Christian. We had
also taken in writing from him that he had become Hindu.
I had received a written message from our leader, Ranchi, for the purpose of conveying this message to the neighbouring Uraons in 1952. I took it and went to some villages and informed them. In that were written that we should do some things 'and should not do certain others. That we were not Christians, and should not follow this religion. On that, certain Missionaries began to tell me why I was doing like this. You are criticising our religion you will be seen when we have our Raj in Jharkhand and you will be sent to Kalapani.
I am filing two leaflets.
NOTE:-Letters of request had been received by the following:-
(1) Rev. Cardinal, s/o John, Lureg.Their names were called. They were absent.
I was formerly member of the Legislative Assembly, and Chairman of the Janpad Sabha. Udaipur. I am a P. W. D. contractor. I have settled in Dharamjaygarh since 1927. In connection with my work I am required to tour in interior in almost important villages of the Udaipur Sub-Division. Formerly, Missionaries were not allowed to make converts in the Udaipur State. Attempts were made in 1930 and in 1934-35 through the help of local officials and foreign officers of the Political Department but could not succeed. In 1935-36, enquiries were made into the activities of Missionaries by Col. Murphy and Col. Meek, Ranchi.
In the year 1948, soon after the integration of the Udaipur State with Madhya Pradesh, Rev. Tigga visited Ludeg from Tapkara (Jashpur State) in defiance of the old State Law, which was even then in force. He was prosecuted and convicted.
After the acquittal in appeal of Rev. Tigga, the foreign Missionaries of Tapkara appointed pracharaks in almost every village of Udaipur State, where Uraons live. These pracharaks gave instructions to children of Uraons and asked them not to attend schools run by the Janpad. In my capacity as Chairman, Janpad Sabha, several complaints of this type reached me. On the 26th May 1956, I, along with then Additional District Magistrate, went to village Khamar to enquire into a similar report. There was a Janpad school at Khamar but the pracharak Geda Uraon had started school in a neighbouring village Putukachar about a mile away from Khamar. On being asked, the pracharak said that he had instructions from the Father of Tapkara and therefore he would not give up his activities of not permitting Uraon children to go to the Janpad school. Whatever reports of this type were received by us were sent to higher authorities with the result of enquiry. After the merger and the appointment of pracharaks in every village, there must have been about 3,000 converts. The main activities in Udaipur is of the Roman Catholic Mission of Jashpur although the Lutheran Mission also have some activities. Recently, the American Evangelic Mission has started work.
In 1948, one Julius Tigga of Ranchi had come to me to seek my co-operation for the Jharkhand movement but I declined to co-operate. The Mission have also appointed in each village a Kotwar to keep watch on the activities of converts so that they may not come in contact with other non-Christians.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- The Kotwar works like Police Intelligence Officer.
Pracharak gets Rs. 30 a month and Kotwar gets Rs. 17 per mensem.
In course of my enquiry I have found that Uraons become Christians because
of promise of lands and allurement. Most of the Uraons in Udaipur
had been advanced loans in 1934-35 and those who did not become Christians
were required to return with huge interest. In 1953-54, people have
paid Rs. 40 in return of the original loan of Rs. 6. It is not true that
on becoming Christians the financial or other conditions of the individual
improve. In most cases the promises given are not fulfilled after
conversion. Those who are educated in the school they become intelligent
and self-conscious. So far as I am aware the Lutheren Mission has
not distributed loans in Udaipur State. After 1948-49 we opened about
80 new schools in Udaipur, before that we could not do any social welfare
work because it was a State regime and the Ruler was a. minor.
About 3 years ago I borrowed Rs. 6 from Tapkara Missionaries and got my choti cut as a sign of embracing Christianity. But I did not want to be a Christian. Then the Missionary told me that I will have to pay the amount with interest and I had to pay Rs. 39 in the year 1954. Now I am a Hindu.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- There was no formal baptism and so I had not become
a Christian. The loan was without any writing.
Name-Bodhu Pachgi Uraon of Dharamjaygarh.
About 2 years ago I borrowed Rs. 7 but I was actually paid Rs. 6-2-0 and annas 14 were deducted. The Missionary said I won’t get the loan unless I got my choti cut. After finding that I did not continue to remain Christian with my choti cut I was demanded the payment of loan with heavy interest. I repaid Rs. 12 but that it would not satisfy the loan. Rs. 20 are still demanded. I am filing the receipt passed by the Missionary for Rs. 12. In that it is written that Rs. 20 have still to be recovered.
had been advanced to us by the foreign Missionary Tapkara and receipts
are given by various pracharaks.
Nos. 22, 23, 24 and 25
(22) Jhulna Pachgi of Dharamjaygarh.
the same story as about the payments of loans and cutting of choti.
Last Year a foreign Missionary with some pracharaks came to my village and asked me and my children to become Christians. I am a widow. I did not agree and therefore the Missionary ordered the people to destroy my dhan crop which was done. There is only one family of Christian who had taken up residence and built house on my land, and he has forcibly taken possession thereof.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- The Father who had come had a beard but I cannot
say what complexion he had.
I am a kotwar of village Kota. My duty is to enter names of those who visit from outside. Foreign and Indian Missionaries visit our village often but when I ask them their names, etc., they do not disclose. Domandas Kotwar of Raimed has also come with me.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- I informed the Station-house Officer of the above
incident. I do not know whether my report was taken down by the Station-House
About 3 years ago, some Missionaries including two Sisters and some pracharaks came to my village and took up residence in my house, in my absence. No one had permitted them to do so. When I returned there assembled some persons in the house and started preaching. They asked me, to become a Christian, saying that Christianity was better religion than Hindu religion, that I will be given education and will be appointed as a pracharak. But I refused. Subsequently, some of them went to the village Sarana (sacred place of worship) and cut trees. Cutting of sacred trees is not allowed in our religion.
The matter was reported to the police and other authorities. Whenever the Sisters and other pracharaks visited our village they would say that our sacred place has already been defiled and we should become Christians otherwise when their rule would be established we would be seriously punished.
Mr. A. B. Shinde.- At present there is British rule.
last, I had been to Mission hospital at Bania. The Padri was inside
the hospital. The pracharak offered me Rs. 5 and said if I become
a Christian then only I would get medicine. I refused and came away.
girl, who was formerly Uraon, fell in love with a Hindu Uraon young man.
The pracharak gave beating to the boy saying why he should marry a Christian
girl. This happened in this year. The assailant was prosecuted
(Not examined as his information was hearsay.)